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OSCE and Conflict Resolution in the Post-Soviet Area: The Case of the Armenia-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict; Azad Garibov

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 451

Sep 30, 2015 - 3:40 PM

The Armenia-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is one of the several conflicts in the post-Soviet space in which Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is involved in mediation of peace negotiations, but failed to facilitate any kind of sustainable resolution of the conflict. The OSCE continued peace-making efforts from 1992 to date; it has deployed several institutions that are tasked dealing with conflict, including the OSCE Minsk Group. In the environment of impunity coupled with the inefficacy of OSCE, Armenia refuses to compromise for the sake of peace and repeatedly sabotages the negotiations process, rendering resolution of the conflict virtually impossible. In such a complex situation, the OSCE needs to be very committed and to have a significantly more effective and coherent peace building strategy. However, OSCE’s peace efforts and mediation strategy suffers significant setbacks; the major purpose of the Minsk Group troika’s efforts seems to have become ‘conflict management’ rather than genuine conflict resolution. Read more...

The Evolution and Failure of NATO’s Nuclear Posture; Kamal Makili-Aliyev

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 450

Sep 30, 2015 - 3:35 PM

As a military alliance with nuclear capabilities, NATO’s nuclear posture has gone through a very interesting evolutionary period, shaped by the security environment during its existence. Not only has the Alliance shifted its focus in terms of conventional/ nuclear forces ratio following the end of the Cold War, it has gradually changed its vision of nuclear weapons and their role in the world. Alliance remains a nuclear power, at least until the global elimination of all nuclear weapons. However, that goal remains a distant one. Will the Alliance adopt a proactive strategy when it comes to nuclear weapons? Will it modernize its nuclear posture? This article attempts to tackle these questions, while also providing an outline of the stages of the evolution of NATO’s nuclear posture. At the same time, it is argued that Alliance’s nuclear posture is currently failing, and urgently requires reforms and a new vision. Read more...

Caucaus International Vol. 5 • No: 3 • Winter 2015

By Editor CI

views: 448

Jul 25, 2016 - 2:01 PM

Georgia’s Future: From Regional and Global Cooperation to Conflict Resolution Read more...

2014: The Year 10 Million Syrians Became an Insignificant Statistic; Salwa Amor

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 445

Sep 30, 2015 - 2:47 PM

In mid-2014, the UN declared that the influx of Syrian refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs), and the ensuing human trafficking catastrophe, had led to the worst humanitarian refugee crisis since WWII. How does the current Syrian refugee crisis fit into the historical context of this previous tragedy, and has the international community and the world at large really learnt anything from past experience? This is the question we pose, and this is the answer we give: a comparison between Europe’s response to the post-WWII refugee crisis and the current, second worst crisis of its kind, reveals that Europe has advanced in many ways. However, for victims of displacement around the world, Europe has yet to move on from the WWII mentality, which was characterized by indifference. Read more...

Azerbaijani Community of the Nagorno Karabakh Region: Deported Community’s Quest for Peace, Justice and Returning Home; Rovshan Rzayev

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 440

Sep 30, 2015 - 2:38 PM

Azerbaijan has experienced one the of the harshest refugee and IDP crises of modern times during its 25 years of independence which made about 13 percent of the country’s population to live lives of refugee and IDP. The Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh (ACNK) who was forcefully displaced by Armenia during ethnic cleansing in the occupied Nagorno-Karabakh is a part of the huge refugee and IDP population of Azerbaijan. The ACNK supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict in accordance with international legal norms, and in order to accelerate the peace process, the ACNK has offered to launch direct negotiations between the Azerbaijani and Armenian communities of the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. Despite all support provided by Azerbaijani state to solve socio-economic problems of the community no support can fully heal the wounds inflicted by war, occupation, massacres and ethnic cleansing. The only way to truly heal these wounds is through the resolution of the Armenia-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, with peace in Nagorno-Karabakh, and the community’s return to their native lands and homes. Read more...

Armenia, Transnational Terrorism and Global Interests: What Do CIA and DoS Documents Suggest? Oleg Kuznetsov

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 439

Sep 30, 2015 - 3:42 PM

The 1980s witnessed intensive theoretical engagement with and reflection on the issue of state-sponsored transnational terrorism in and outside Armenia. During that decade, this terrorism existed on an unprecedented and as yet unrepeated scale, effectiveness and emotional intensity. Scholarly debate on the subject was taking place against the backdrop of continuing geopolitical conflicts in the Middle East, particularly Lebanon, forming the primary foundation of this socio-criminological phenomenon with its mainstream experiencing deep and structural modernization, consolidation and crystallization. An adequate understanding of the goals, objectives and practical orientation of the academic discussion on Armenian terrorism has only become possible in recent years, following the release of CIA documents on Armenian terrorist organizations (Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, Justice Commandos against Armenian Genocide, and New Armenian Resistance) into the public domain. A comparison of the US intelligence documents and those of the United States Department of State (DoS) with academic research materials has demonstrated a high degree of correlation across their content, potentially indicating that the majority of the theoretical analyses of the time were carried out indirectly or directly in the service of US government interests. The main purpose of the contemporary academic discourse was to study different theoretical perspectives and different angles on the possibility of the use of resources and potential of Armenian state-sponsored terrorism against the Soviet Union as a “hot tool” in the Cold War. The affirmative answer to this question became the catalyst of aggression of originated in the Middle East Armenian terrorism against the Soviet Transcaucasia and marked the beginning of the Nagorno-Karabakh con-flict. Read more...

Security Challenges for Afghanistan: Is the International Security Governance Failing or Succeeding in Afghanistan? Salih Doğan

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 436

Sep 30, 2015 - 3:32 PM

The end of 2014 marked the conclusion of the United States’ longest war, at least in the sense of its role as a direct combatant. The military intervention in 2001, continued as a NATO mission, sought to disrupt, dismantle, and defeat terrorist and insurgent groups in Afghanistan. The international community withdrew most of their troops and left only 13,500 non-combatant soldiers under the new NATO mission. Named the Resolute Support Mission, the mission is designed to train, advise and assist the Afghan National Security Forces. However, the number of troops and their non-combatant role could pose difficulties in terms of Afghanistan’s security. An increase in the number of troops and a shift back into a combatant role might be needed in the near future. Obviously, it would be very optimistic to assume that the Afghan National Security Forces could overcome the terrorist threat on their own, given that this was impossible even with almost 150,000 NATO troops present in the country. With the Afghan forces fully responsible for security issues, 2014 became the bloodiest year since 2001. Moreover, the Islamic State (in Iraq and the Levant) moved beyond the Middle East and became active and operational in Afghan soil during this time. They began to carry out attacks in the country, which led the Islamic State and the Taliban to declare jihad against one another. Afghanistan’s current security situation has implications beyond its national borders; it is a trans-boundary security threat affecting Central Asian, South Asian and Middle Eastern countries. The situation now requires a common strategy from the international coalitions constituted to counter the Taliban and Islamic State, in order to fight these groups in the wider region. Read more...

The Iron Silk Road: How will Turkey be Involved?; Onur F. Uysal

By Editor CI

views: 431

Jul 25, 2016 - 3:40 PM

The Iron Silk Road, the railway corridor connecting China to Europe and Middle East, is one of the fastest growing railway corridors in the world. China’s strategic plan for creating strong economic ties with Eurasia, known as ‘One Belt, One Road’, is the primary source of this growth, though not the only one. Many other countries, including Iran, Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine, all have specific political and economic interests in this new corridor. Turkey, located on the ancient Silk Road and at the crossroads between Europe and Asia, has ambitious targets with regard to its involvement in the Iron Silk Road. This article discusses Turkey’s current and future position in Iron Silk Road, including its efforts and investments in the initiative, such as the Marmaray tunnel and Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway projects. Read more...

Life in a Tent… The Unending Plight of Syrian Refugees in Lebanon; Samar el Kadi

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 421

Sep 30, 2015 - 2:46 PM

When Syrians fled their war-torn country for the relative safety of neighboring Lebanon, they little imagined that almost four years on, they would still be there. As the humanitarian assistance which they have been relying on runs out and the tolerance of their hosts wears thin, their living conditions have dramatically deteriorated. What is it like for the Syrian refugees who continue to spend years of their lives in poorly equipped tents in miserable conditions? Samar el Kadi reports from the Bekaa valley in eastern Lebanon. Read more...

Georgia’s European Quest: The Challenge of the Meskhetian Turks; Galina Yemelyanova

By ilgar Gurbanov

views: 415

Jan 18, 2016 - 12:19 PM

The article deals with the Meskhetian Turks (Ahiska Turks), who in 1944 were deported by Stalin from the Meskheti region of Georgia to Central Asia. They have never been able to return to their ancestral land, the Meskheti area of the present-day Samtskhe-Javakheti region in Georgia. The paper analyzes Tbilisi’s ambivalent policy towards Meskhetian Turks and how that relates to Georgia’s European aspirations. The author argues that Tbilisi’s commitment to the repatriation of the Meskhetian Turks is disingenuous, and that the government has used this issue to further its European quest. Georgia’s resistance to the Meskhetian Turks’ resettlement stems from a number of factors, including: its Georgian-focused nation-building project, which is not welcoming towards ethnic minorities; concerns about the reaction of the majority-Armenian population in Samtskhe-Javakheti; its energy security considerations related to Javakheti’s location on the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline route; and its territorial integrity fears, especially in the light of its de facto loss of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The paper also examines the factors behind the survival of Meskhetian Turks as a distinct ethnic group despite their geographic dispersal across Eurasia and the wider world. Read more...
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