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'The South Caucasus in the Global Struggle' by Araz Aslanlı

By Editor CI

views: 331

Jun 14, 2017 - 1:08 PM

The article focuses on the history of German-Azerbaijani relations, namely, the dynamics over the last two centuries. There have been times when the relationship has been limited, if it has existed at all, due to the political circumstances of the time. The bilateral relationship can be divided into two stages: during the first stage, Azerbaijan was a dependent political entity inside the Russian Empire, and then a union member within the USSR. The second stage is characterized by the relationship between two independent states, with economic and political freedom in decision-making, as the countries have enjoyed for the past quarter of a century. The article traces the important moments in the relationship and outlines achievements, as well as areas for further cooperation. Read more...

'Kazakhstan’s Energy Policy on the Eve of Kashagan Oil Field Production' by Mukhit B. Assanbayev

By Editor CI

views: 319

Jan 10, 2017 - 12:18 AM

The article examines the geopolitics of transport communications in Central Asia and the Caspian, and Kazakhstan’s energy policy. Kazakhstan suffers from geopolitical isolation and preoccupied with identifying new inroads to foreign markets. This has become the main focus of its energy policy. Despite involvement by the Western countries, China, and Russia in regional energy geopolitics, Kazakhstan faces tough geopolitical choices. Astana is still in search of an effective energy policy that would enable further diversification of its transport communications. The existing transit routes for the Kashagan oil, as proposed by Russia and other external actors, do not fully support the energy security of Kazakhstan. As for Kashagan oil field production, the article concludes that the main obstacles include several complicated issues such as technical problems, as well as risks to the environment of the Caspian Sea. The new context, namely the dramatic decline of oil prices and its consequences for the global economy, makes it difficult to project a clear vision for the project’s success. Read more...

Trans-Eurasian Energy Transportation Networks and the Necessity of Regional Cooperation; Mikhail A. Molchanov

By Editor CI

views: 290

Jul 25, 2016 - 2:20 PM

The Central Asia-Transcaspian region is rich in energy resources. However, these resources cannot be fully developed without fostering international cooperation. The ‘pipeline wars’ between competing consortia is not conducive to profit maximization. A cooperative regional regime for oil and gas exploration, extraction, and transportation could help improve the business climate and international security. The existing regional integration organizations with a degree of sway in the area – the Eurasian Economic Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization – still have some way to go to prove their usefulness as true promoters of multilateralism. Regional countries that do not belong to either of the two organizations prefer to cooperate on a bilateral basis – and this is also true of member states. Regional coordination is necessary to overcome self-interested, beggar-thy-neighbor behavior by business players and states alike in order to maximize regional welfare. Read more...

'The UN Security Council and the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Policy of Double Standards and Unexecuted Resolutions' by Najiba Mustafayeva

By Editor CI

views: 287

Jun 14, 2017 - 1:05 PM

The Armenia-Azerbaijan Nagorno-Karabakh conflict is undoubtedly the most complex, as well as the most dangerous conflict in the South Caucasus. In 1993, the United Nations Security Council adopted a series of resolutions (822, 853, 874, and 884) demanding the immediate cessation of hostilities and the complete and unconditional withdrawal of all occupying forces from Azerbaijani territories. Despite the legally binding nature of the Security Council resolutions, they still remain unrealized. One of the main reasons for the ineffectiveness of the United Nations, particularly the Security Council, is its inability and in some cases unwillingness to ensure the implementation of its resolutions. The failure of resolutions not only undermines the credibility of the United Nations, but also threatens international peace and security. However, the UN Security Council has the authority to apply sanctions to member states that fail to execute its resolutions. The resolutions of the Council adopted according to Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Action with Respect to Threats to the Peace, Breaches of the Peace and Acts of Aggression) contain the legal elements of international responsibility. Measures taken by the UN Security Council in accordance with Article 41 and 42 of the UN Charter are coercive measures intended to encourage the offender to fulfill the obligations arising from its international legal responsibility. Read more...

'Historicity and Historical Ethnography of Azerbaijan: The 18th and 19th Century Caucasus at a Glance' by Rizvan Huseynov Najafoglu

By Editor CI

views: 282

Jan 10, 2017 - 12:09 AM

This article is a part of a larger research project on historical territories and the Turkic population of Azerbaijan in the South Caucasus, first published in 2015 as a monograph, “Azerbaijan and the Armenian question in the Caucasus” (Азербайджан и армянский вопрос на Кавказе). The author drew upon nearly 300 ancient, medieval, and modern sources describing Azerbaijan’s territories in the Caucasus. This article presents the European and American sources from the 18th and early 19th centuries, describing the territory and the population of Azerbaijan in the Caucasus. The aim of this study is to show the historicity of Azerbaijan in regional politics and international relations during the aforementioned period. Read more...

'Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant from the Perspective of Energy Security: A Solution or a Deadlock?' by Azime Telli

By Editor CI

views: 263

Jan 10, 2017 - 12:14 AM

Besides its lack of resources, Turkey’s main problem in terms of energy security is its import dependency. Turkey is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels, and natural gas is the most critical one among them. Natural gas has the largest share in Turkey’s energy mix; 55% of Turkey’s natural gas needs is met by Russia, which leads to interdependency between these parties in the energy domain. Turkey therefore is seeking ways to diversify its energy supplies. As part of such a search, Turkey initiated its nuclear expansion and started building a nuclear plant in Akkuyu, Mersin. Yet, Turkey’s reliance on Russia in the construction and operation of the power plant has the potential of leading Turkey into a further stalemate in terms of energy dependency. This is because, Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant will allow Russia to become more powerful within the scope of this interdependent relation with Turkey, which gives rise to serious geopolitical and geo-economical risks. This paper studies the implication of this dependency relationship on Turkey’s energy security and argues that a nuclear power plant built by Russia in Akkuyu will be disadvantageous for Turkey. The paper also examines Akkuyu’s possible effects on Turkey’s natural gas dependency. Read more...

'Energy Security Strategy in Kazakhstan: Environmental Security and Renewable Energy Sources' by Renata Mantel

By Editor CI

views: 253

Jan 10, 2017 - 12:16 AM

139 Renata Mantel* The article addresses the key aspects of energy security policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan, suggesting that increasing the use of the renewable energy sources (RES) is crucial for reducing the country’s dependence on oil and gas supplies. Greater reliance on renewables would improve economic and environmental sustainability, ensure increased energy security, and help create the conditions necessary for enhancing collaboration in Central Eurasia, as well as cooperation with Central Asian and EU states, in the energy sector. The paper also reviews several dimensions of the Kazakh oil and gas industry and its impact on the country’s energy security policy. It assesses measures that might prove effective for introducing new “green” technologies aimed at limiting consumption of non-renewable natural resources and introducing a larger-scale RES-based energy production. Read more...

'Security Dynamics in the South Caucasus since Independence: Interconnected Threats and Security Interdependence' by Azad Garibov

By Editor CI

views: 240

Jun 14, 2017 - 1:09 PM

The article examines the security dynamics in the South Caucasus using the Copenhagen School’s Regional Security Complex theory, and seeks to uncover why and how the security of the three regional countries is interconnected and influenced by the region itself and its immediate neighborhood. It views the region as a distinct security complex, and argues that the South Caucasus can be best characterized as a region if viewed through the lens of security. Any major security dynamic affecting one of the three countries of the South Caucasus has clear implications for the remaining two. As small countries with limited capabilities, interests and agendas, the major security environment of the South Caucasus states is the region itself and its neighborhood, including immediate neighbors such as Russia, Turkey and Iran. The US, as the world’s only superpower, also has certain security interests in and interactions with the South Caucasus. Read more...
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