Guidelines for Authors



Authors should submit papers electronically via


Authors should submit a minimum of two files. For articles and technical notes, they should contain the following elements:

  1. Author Information File:
    • the title of the article
    • the author(s)' names and affiliations
    • full contact details (including email, postal address and phone and fax numbers) for the corresponding author
  2. Article:
    • the title of the article
    • a summary or abstract of not more than 200 words
    • keywords
    • the article in full, including references
  3. Figures and Tables
    • Figures and tables may be uploaded either embedded in the main article file or as separate files.


Presentation of the paper

Articles should be in English, typed in double spacing (including all notes and references).
Articles should not normally exceed 5,000 words in length.

When you submit your article, please also attach:

  • an abstract of 150 - 200 words, in English, stating precisely the topic under consideration, the method of argument used in addressing the topic, and the conclusions reached;
  • a list of up to six keywords suitable for indexing and abstracting services;
  • a word count at the end of the manuscript, together with the date of the manuscript;
  • a full postal and e-mail address, as well as telephone and fax numbers for the author. If the manuscript is co-authored, then please provide the requested information for the corresponding author;
  • on a separate sheet, provide a brief biographical note about each author, including current institutional affiliation, research interests and any recent and/or forthcoming publications.


References in the text


All notes should appear as footnotes and provide full citations:

  • References should contain the full name of the author, title of the work and publication date.
  • If the cited work is an article in a journal or edited book, the page numbers should be included.
  • Abbreviations and capitalizations should be consistent throughout the text.
  • The use of full stops in lower case abbreviations is necessary (as in et al., ibid., ed.). However please avoid using this type of punctuation in capitalized abbreviations (as in UN or Washington, DC), with the exception of the abbreviation for the United States of America, which must include points (U.S.).
  • In subsequent citations, use ibid. if the citation immediately following is the same or ibid. with a different page number if the citation is identical except for the page reference. If other citations intervene, use the short title format.
  • Foreign language words or terms should be italicized.
  • Articles should have at most binary subtitles. First subtitle must be written in bold, second subtitle in bold and italics. Subtitles should not include any letters or numbers.
  • The Editorial team prefers dates within the article to be given as follows: 1 June 2010, 1990s, 21st century, mid-18th century, 1991–2001.
  • Finally, please use single quote marks for direct quotations and double quote marks for quotes within direct quotations.


        The Reference List

Books, including ebooks

• author's surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of book (in italics )

• edition

• place of publication (colon: )

• name of publisher


Hodkinson, P. (2002) Goth: identity, style and subculture. Oxford: Berg.

Bender, D.A. and Bender, A.E. (1999) Bender's dictionary of nutrition and food technology. 7th edn. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.


N.B. Where more than one edition of a book exists, it is essential to cite the edition you have used.

Edited Books

• editor's surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• ed. (in brackets)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of book (in italics)

• edition

• place of publication (colon: )

• name of publisher

e.g. Wrigley, N. and Lowe, M.S. (eds.) (1996) Retailing, consumption and capital: towards the new retail geography. Harlow: Longman.

Chapters in Edited Books

• Chapter author's surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of chapter (between single quotation marks),

• in:

• editor(s) of book: surname, initials, followed by (ed.) or (eds.)

• title of book (italics)

• place of publication:

• name of publisher

• page numbers

e.g. Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp.83-95.

Government departmental publications

• name of government department - no need for country.

• year of publication (in round brackets)

• title of publication (in italics )

• place of publication: publisher

• series (in brackets) - if applicable.

If referencing an online version replace Place of publication: publisher with: 

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Department of Health (2008) Health inequalities: progress and next steps. Available at: (Accessed: 18 June 2010)

Publications written by corporate bodies or organisations

• corporate author

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title (in italics)

• place of publication: publisher

e.g. Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) (2008) The code: standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council.

Conference Proceedings

• author's surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of conference pape: subtitle (in italics)

• location and date of conference

• place of publication: publisher

e.g. Institute for Small Business Affairs (2000) Small firms: adding the spark: the 23rd ISBA national small firms policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15-17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs.

Journal Articles

• author's surname (comma, initials, full stop)

• year of publication (in brackets)

• title of article (between single quotation marks '  ' )

• title of journal (in italics )

• volume number and issue/ part number e.g. 28(5)

• page numbers of the article

• doi - only if available

e.g. Lievrouw, L. (2001) ‘New media and the pluralization of live-worlds: a role for information in social differentiation', New Media and Society, 3(1), pp. 7-28.

E-Journals are referenced in the same way.

e.g. Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: Achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), pp.323-326. doi: 10.1080/02619761003602246.

Web Sites

• author/editor's surname (comma, initials, full stop) or name of organisation

• year that the site was published/last updated (in brackets)

• title of internet site (italics)

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. BBC (2009) Young resent ‘negative images'. Available at: (Accessed: 10 July 2009).


Many authors give first names or aliases. Use the name they have used in your reference

• author of message 

• year of publication or last update (in brackets)

• title of message (in single quotation marks)

• title of internet site (italics)

• day/month of posted message

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. Peston, R. (2009) ‘Why banks must be allowed to die', Peston's Picks, 26 June. Available at:  (Accessed: 10 July 2009)


• Name of person posting video

• Year video posted (in brackets)

• title of item (italics)

• Available at: URL

• (Accessed: date)

e.g. MoonWalkerJackson (2009) Michael Jackson you are not alone. Available at: (Accessed: 14 July 2009) 


Spelling and Punctuation

Please use US spellings and punctuation consistently throughout, taking as a guide the new edition of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Use -ize rather than -ise as a verb ending (e.g., globalization, conceptualize, recognize) and -or rather than -our (e.g. behavior, neighbor).


Illustrations and tables

Supply tables, figures and plates on separate sheets at the end of the article, with their position within the text clearly indicated on the page where they are introduced. Provide typed captions for figures and plates (including sources and acknowledgements) on a separate sheet. Electronic versions should be saved in separate files to the main body of text and should be saved in either TIFF or JPEG format.

Authors are asked to present tables with the minimum use of horizontal rules (usually three are sufficient) and avoiding vertical rules except in matrices. It is important to provide clear copies of figures (not photocopies or faxes) which can be reproduced by the printer and do not require redrawing. Photographs should be preferably black and white glossy prints with a wide tonal range.



Clearing Permissions. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing through any medium of communication those illustrations, tables, figures or lengthy quotations previously published elsewhere. Add your acknowledgements to the typescript, preferably in the form of an Acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. Credit the source and copyright of photographs or figures in the accompanying captions.

The journal’s policy is to own copyright in all contributions. Before publication, authors assign copyright to the Publishers, but retain their rights to republish this material in other works written or edited by themselves subject to full acknowledgement of the original source of publication.

The journal mandates the Copyright Clearance Center in the USA and the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK to offer centralised licensing arrangements for photocopying in their respective territories.

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